The speed and scale of the influx of these ethnic Hutus overwhelmed the world’s response capacity. Emergency food rations should be strategically stockpiled, together with charcoal fuel and stoves. Forecasting a volcanic eruption days or weeks in advance is not likely to be possible, so an understanding at what stage and on what basis the warning to the NGOs will be given needs to be elaborated upon and agreed with all parties as part of the Contingency Plan. These continued on a frequent basis for about a week, and acted as a deterrent to some people returning to the city. Of the , persons who have lost their homes, about 15, were in camps in the Goma environs. Decisions on the short or long-term evacuation of the population because of a renewed threat from the volcano have to be weighed against the hazards to health from disrupting the precarious lives of hundreds of thousands of people.
Visits were made to Sake and camps for displaced persons. In , most of the refugees entered through Goma between July 14 and 17, and the cholera epidemic began almost immediately. Other dangerous gases that needed to be excluded include methane, hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide. The communications revolution in the Palestinian territories. A repeat lava flow event and evacuation, followed by a rapid return to Goma before activity had declined, as occurred in January, would be especially hazardous, with the possible danger of phreato-magmatic explosions from renewed lava flows. Goma does not contain high-rise or densely packed buildings, so fires set off by the lava flows did not spread much further than the lava flow edge. The risk of death and injury from the volcano has to be weighed against the risk from other causes of loss of life due to the vulnerability of the population to daily threats from violence, malnutrition and endemic infectious diseases.
These scenarios are also good reasons for not returning to the city after an eruption until the activity has clearly declined. This type of eruptive activity is caase usually dangerous to life except in the very fluid flows that can move very fast in eruptions of Nyiragongo.
Nevertheless, most of those who left got away before late evening. Interviews were held with local officials, the staff of nyiragojgo city’s utilities, and workers for NGO’s and international agencies in Goma.
Both the main supply pumping stations for the city, Lac Kivu and Turquoise, were out of action because the power supplies had also been disrupted by the eruption. Inmost of the refugees entered through Goma between July 14 and 17, and the cholera epidemic began almost immediately.
Human health and vulnerability in the Nyiragongo volcano crisis DR Congo Jun 2002
Complex justifications are developed. The electrical grid needs strengthening so that power can be switched along different routes when a line is fase by a lava flow.
If we had given money There is abundant evidence from around the globe that post-disaster economies revive quickly if everyone has a little money to spend. Studh of magma rising beneath Goma or Lake Kivu should be feasible, using a telemeter seismic monitoring network.
Contingency plans should be modified to include stdy detailed arrangements for health sector interventions to reduce the risk from cholera in an evacuation and resettlement of Goma. It was no secret that they were going to sell the goods, and that the ensuing flood volccano cheap aluminium pots or plastic sheets would debase the local market and make things worse for small traders.
There is a plan to resettle 40, people from Goma at a new development near Lac Vert, not far from Sake this plan, which is going ahead anyway under local political direction, should be reviewed following a formal scientific risk assessment. The presence of large quantities of methane and carbon dioxide stored at depth in Lake Kivu has been recognized and puzzled over by scientists since the early s,22 if not before.
Houses in Goma have latrines dug into the ancient lava flows from Nyiragongo on which the city is built.
The other hazards include the delayed explosion of flammable stores, intensely hot lava flows emitting steam in heavy rains, strong earthquakes leading to building collapse, the methane explosions, no means of sterilizing drinking water, raised fluoride levels near the lake water intakes for the city, lack of food and fuel, continuing movement of lava and extruded tongues of lava from lateral vents, and the unpredictability of the whole situation.
Volcano monitoring needs to be urgently expanded and upgraded by foreign scientists working with the full involvement of the Goma Volcano Observatory which, to date, has vokcano working at a rudimentary state of capacity during the political crisis. However, the fluoride levels in drinking water in the area clearly need monitoring. A hazard assessment was conducted by volcanologists9 and reported nuiragongo Tazieff in a letter vvolcano Nature: In January and February the power was provided free to the population, and there was, in consequence, no funds to pay Gisenyi for the power and so the supply had become a precarious one there was also no money to pay salaries to the SNEL staff.
Decision nyitagongo on risk is therefore a balance between the two dangers: It suffered an economic downturn for the next years as the tourist trade collapsed with few visitors.
Analysis of samples of lava from the different locations shows no major mineralogical differences in their composition as would be expected if their sources had been different i. Looters had taken poles and cables.
The fires were clearly most intense in the main lava flow that struck the commercial centre. The water network across the city was broken by both lava flows Fig. Families were made to line up for hours to collect meticulously counted and packaged items, and the length of the procedure alone led to frustration, and ultimately to temptation and impersonation.
Between 1 and 16 August, patients with suspected meningitis were reported, predominantly Group A, the commonest outbreak strain in this African region. Effect of the volcanic crisis on the humanitarian situation. For the local people, as Tazieff learned, the volcano was a resting place for the souls of their ancestors. The consequences to health in terms of trauma and infections of these impacts were relatively small, especially in comparison to the potential hazards from the lava flows 6. We were reliably informed that the mood of the population changed from expectancy to rapid exodus when lava vents were seen to develop within the city in advance of the main lava flow this observation is a critical one, and requires further confirmation.
The eruptions of both volcanoes exhibit the same classical effusive and mildly explosive activity characterized by the opening of long, gaping fissures through which lava emerges at different locations, and these emissions merge to form lava flows several hundred metres wide.
Due to the hardness of the rock, the depth of latrines is generally less than ideal, not more than 1. A repeat survey with GVO volcanologists using a portable infra-red gas-analyser Geotechnical Instruments, GA45 in March showed that there were no longer any significant gas emissions in Goma.